Buckingham County is managed by a Board of Supervisors, County Administrator, and a full assortment of other competent elected officials.
Buckingham County, lying south of the James River at the geographic center of the state, was established in 1761 from the southeastern portion of Albemarle County. The origin of the county name comes from the Duke of Buckingham (Buckinghamshire, England). This is the only Buckingham County in the United States.
Lee’s army marched through the county during Lee’s retreat on their way to Appomattox, Virginia. A marker in the cemetery of Trinity Presbyterian Church in New Canton reads, "According to the oral history of Trinity Presbyterian Church and this community, here are 45 Confederate and Union soldiers buried in mass graves directly behind this church. They left Appomattox after the surrender and headed for their homes north of here. Sick with disease, they died in a nearby camp. That they may not be forgotten, this plaque is placed by the Elliott Grays UDC Chapter #1877 2003"
In 2011, the county celebrated its 250th Anniversary.
Fluvanna County - northeast
Cumberland County - east
Prince Edward County - south
Appomattox County - southwest
Nelson County - west
Albemarle County - northwest
As of the census of 2010, there were 17,146 people and 5,695 households residing in the county. The population density was 29.6 people per square mile (10/km²). There were 7,294 housing units . The racial makeup of the county was 62.5% White, 35.1% Black or African American, 0.3% American Indian, 0.4% Asian, 1.7% Hispanic or Latino,and 1.6% from two or more other races. 60.9% of the population identified as White, not Hispanic or Latino.The largest ancestry groups are listed as 18.7% American, 9.2% English, and 5.4% German.
There were 5,965 households out of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.1% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.6% had a male householder with no wife present, and 31.1% were non-families. 26.1% of all households were made up of individuals living alone. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.95.
In the county, the population was spread out with 19.2% under the age of 18, .6% from 20 to 24, 13% from 25 to 34, 22.8% from 35 to 49, and 22% from 50-64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. There were 9,493 males and 7,653 females. The median age was 41.7.